Curso de Informática en Peligros

✭BDRIP✭ Movie Cats





Star=Robbie Fairchild, Judi Dench Tom Hooper Tom Hooper Duration=1 H, 50 minute 2019. CATS PROTECTION IS THE UK’S LEADING FELINE WELFARE CHARITY Since we were founded in 1927, we’ve helped a huge number of cats and kittens – homing over 1. 5 million of them to new owners and championing the rights of countless others. Our key aims - rehoming, neutering and information have improved the lives and welfare of cats throughout the UK. Find out more.



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Cats taylor swift. Cats web. Cats scala. Catsup vs. ketchup. Cats andrew lloyd webber. Cats the musical. Catskill casino. Cats 101. Cats altria. Domestic cat Various types of domestic cat Conservation status Domesticated Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Felidae Subfamily: Felinae Genus: Felis Species: F. catus [1] Binomial name Felis catus [1] Linnaeus, 1758 [2] Synonyms F. catus domesticus Erxleben, 1777 [3] F. angorensis Gmelin, 1788 F. vulgaris Fischer, 1829 The cat ( Felis catus) is a small carnivorous mammal. [1] [2] It is the only domesticated species in the family Felidae and often referred to as the domestic cat to distinguish it from wild members of the family. [4] The cat is either a house cat, a farm cat or a feral cat; latter ranges freely and avoids human contact. [5] Domestic cats are valued by humans for companionship and for their ability to hunt rodents. About 60 cat breeds are recognized by various cat registries. [6] The cat is similar in anatomy to the other felid species, has a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp teeth and retractable claws adapted to killing small prey. Its night vision and sense of smell are well developed. Cat communication includes vocalizations like meowing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling and grunting as well as cat-specific body language. It is a solitary hunter, but a social species. It can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small mammals. It is a predator that is most active at dawn and dusk. [7] It secretes and perceives pheromones. [8] Female domestic cats can have kittens from spring to late autumn, with litter sizes ranging from two to five kittens. [9] Domestic cats are bred and shown as registered pedigreed cats, a hobby known as cat fancy. Failure to control breeding of pet cats by spaying and neutering, as well as abandonment of pets, resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, contributing to the extinction of entire bird species, and evoking population control. [10] It was long thought that cat domestication was initiated in Egypt, because cats in ancient Egypt were venerated since around 3100 BC. [11] [12] However, the earliest indication for the taming of an African wildcat ( F. lybica) was found in Cyprus, where a cat skeleton was excavated close by a human Neolithic grave dating to around 7500 BC. [13] African wildcats were probably first domesticated in the Near East. [14] As of 2017, the domestic cat was the second-most popular pet in the United States by number of pets owned, after freshwater fish, [15] with 95 million cats owned. [16] [17] In the United Kingdom, around 7. 3 million cats lived in more than 4. 8 million households as of 2019. [18] Etymology and naming The origin of the English word 'cat', Old English catt, is thought to be the Late Latin word cattus, which was first used at the beginning of the 6th century. [19] It was suggested that the word 'cattus' is derived from an Egyptian precursor of Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau, "tomcat", or its feminine form suffixed with -t. [20] The Late Latin word is also thought to be derived from Afro-Asiatic languages. [21] The Nubian word kaddîska "wildcat" and Nobiin kadīs are possible sources or cognates. [22] The Nubian word may be a loan from Arabic قَطّ‎ qaṭṭ ~ قِطّ qiṭṭ. It is "equally likely that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic". [23] The word may be derived from Germanic and Northern European languages, and ultimately be borrowed from Uralic, cf. Northern Sami gáđfi, "female stoat ", and Hungarian hölgy, "stoat"; from Proto-Uralic *käďwä, "female (of a furred animal)". [24] The English puss, extended as pussy and pussycat, is attested from the 16th century and may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatte, related to Swedish kattepus, or Norwegian pus, pusekatt. Similar forms exist in Lithuanian puižė and Irish puisín or puiscín. The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have simply arisen from a sound used to attract a cat. [25] [26] A male cat is called a tom or tomcat [27] (or a gib, [28] if neutered) An unspayed female is called a queen, [29] especially in a cat-breeding context. A juvenile cat is referred to as a kitten. In Early Modern English, the word kitten was interchangeable with the now-obsolete word catling. [30] A group of cats can be referred to as a clowder or a glaring. [31] Taxonomy The scientific name Felis catus was proposed by Carl Linnaeus in 1758 for a domestic cat. [1] [2] Felis catus domesticus was proposed by Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben in 1777. [3] Felis daemon proposed by Konstantin Alekseevich Satunin in 1904 was a black cat from the Transcaucasus, later identified as a domestic cat. [32] [33] In 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature ruled that the domestic cat is a distinct species, namely Felis catus. [34] [35] In 2007, it was considered a subspecies of the European wildcat, F. silvestris catus, following results of phylogenetic research. [36] [37] In 2017, the IUCN Cat Classification Taskforce followed the recommendation of the ICZN in regarding the domestic cat as a distinct species, Felis catus. [38] Evolution Skulls of a wildcat (top left), a housecat (top right), and a hybrid between the two (bottom centre) The domestic cat is a member of the Felidae, a family that had a common ancestor about 10–15 million years ago. [39] The genus Felis diverged from the Felidae around 6–7 million years ago. [40] Results of phylogenetic research confirm that the wild Felis species evolved through sympatric or parapatric speciation, whereas the domestic cat evolved through artificial selection. [41] The domesticated cat and its closest wild ancestor are both diploid organisms that possess 38 chromosomes [42] and roughly 20, 000 genes. [43] The leopard cat ( Prionailurus bengalensis) was tamed independently in China around 5500 BC. This line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domestic cat populations of today. [44] Domestication A cat eating a fish under a chair, a mural in an Egyptian tomb dating to the 15th century BC The earliest known indication for a tamed African wildcat was excavated close by a human grave in Shillourokambos, southern Cyprus, dating to about 9, 200 to 9, 500 years before present. As there is no evidence of native mammalian fauna on Cyprus, the inhabitants of this Neolithic village most likely brought the cat and other wild mammals to the island from the Middle Eastern mainland. [13] Scientists therefore assume that African wildcats were attracted to early human settlements in the Fertile Crescent by rodents, in particular the house mouse ( Mus musculus), and were tamed by Neolithic farmers. This commensal relationship between early farmers and tamed cats lasted thousands of years. As agricultural practices spread, so did tame and domesticated cats. [14] [6] Wildcats of Egypt contributed to the maternal gene pool of the domestic cat at a later time. [45] The earliest known evidence for the occurrence of the domestic cat in Greece dates to around 1200 BC. Greek, Phoenician, Carthaginian and Etruscan traders introduced domestic cats to southern Europe. [46] During the Roman Empire they were introduced to Corsica and Sardinia before the beginning of the 1st millennium. [47] By the 5th century BC, they were familiar animals around settlements in Magna Graecia and Etruria. [48] By the end of the Roman Empire in the 5th century, the Egyptian domestic cat lineage had arrived in a Baltic Sea port in northern Germany. [45] During domestication, cats have undergone only minor changes in anatomy and behavior, and they are still capable of surviving in the wild. Several natural behaviors and characteristics of wildcats may have preadapted them for domestication as pets. These traits include their small size, social nature, obvious body language, love of play and relatively high intelligence. Captive Leopardus cats may also display affectionate behavior toward humans, but were not domesticated. [49] House cats often mate with feral cats, [50] producing hybrids such as the Kellas cat in Scotland. [51] Hybridisation between domestic and other Felinae species is also possible. [52] Development of cat breeds started in the mid 19th century. [53] An analysis of the domestic cat genome revealed that the ancestral wildcat genome was significantly altered in the process of domestication as specific mutations were selected to develop cat breeds. [54] Most breeds are founded on random-bred domestic cats. Genetic diversity of these breeds varies between regions, and is lowest in purebred populations, which show more than 20 deleterious genetic disorders. [55] Characteristics Diagram of the general anatomy of a male domestic cat Size The domestic cat has a smaller skull and shorter bones than the European wildcat. [56] It averages about 46 cm (18 in) in head-to-body length and 23–25 cm (9. 1–9. 8 in) in height, with about 30 cm (12 in) long tails. Males are larger than females. [57] Adult domestic cats typically weigh between 4 and 5 kg (8. 8 and 11. 0 lb). [41] Skeleton Cats have seven cervical vertebrae (as do most mammals); 13 thoracic vertebrae (humans have 12); seven lumbar vertebrae (humans have five); three sacral vertebrae (as do most mammals, but humans have five); and a variable number of caudal vertebrae in the tail (humans have only vestigial caudal vertebrae, fused into an internal coccyx). [58]: 11 The extra lumbar and thoracic vertebrae account for the cat's spinal mobility and flexibility. Attached to the spine are 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the pelvis. [58]: 16 Unlike human arms, cat forelimbs are attached to the shoulder by free-floating clavicle bones which allow them to pass their body through any space into which they can fit their head. [59] Skull The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large eye sockets and a powerful specialized jaw. [60]: 35 Within the jaw, cats have teeth adapted for killing prey and tearing meat. When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two long canine teeth, inserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing its spinal cord, causing irreversible paralysis and death. [61] Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth relative to the size of their jaw, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae. [61] The premolar and first molar together compose the carnassial pair on each side of the mouth, which efficiently shears meat into small pieces, like a pair of scissors. These are vital in feeding, since cats' small molars cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication. [60]: 37 Although cats tend to have better teeth than most humans, with decay generally less likely because of a thicker protective layer of enamel, a less damaging saliva, less retention of food particles between teeth, and a diet mostly devoid of sugar, they are nonetheless subject to occasional tooth loss and infection. [62] Ambulation The cat is digitigrade. It walks on the toes, with the bones of the feet making up the lower part of the visible leg. [63] Unlike most mammals, it uses a "pacing" gait and moves both legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side. It registers directly by placing each hind paw close to the track of the corresponding fore paw, minimizing noise and visible tracks. This also provides sure footing for hind paws when navigating rough terrain. As it speeds up walking to trotting, its gait changes to a "diagonal" gait: the diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously. [64] Claws Cats have protractable and retractable claws. [65] In their normal, relaxed position, the claws are sheathed with the skin and fur around the paw's toe pads. This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey. The claws on the fore feet are typically sharper than those on the hind feet. [66] Cats can voluntarily extend their claws on one or more paws. They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing, kneading, or for extra traction on soft surfaces. Cats shed the outside layer of their claw sheaths when scratching rough surfaces. [67] Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws. The dewclaw is proximal to the other claws. More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger". This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping. Some cat breeds are prone to having extra digits ( polydactyly). [68] Polydactylous cats occur along North America's northeast coast and in Great Britain. [69] Senses Vision Cats have excellent night vision and can see at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision. [60]: 43 This is partly the result of cat eyes having a tapetum lucidum, which reflects any light that passes through the retina back into the eye, thereby increasing the eye's sensitivity to dim light. [70] Large pupils are an adaptation to dim light. The domestic cat has slit pupils, which allow it to focus bright light without chromatic aberration. [71] At low light, a cat's pupils expand to cover most of the exposed surface of its eyes. [72] However, the domestic cat has rather poor color vision and only two types of cone cells, optimized for sensitivity to blue and yellowish green; its ability to distinguish between red and green is limited. [73] A response to middle wavelengths from a system other than the rod cells might be due to a third type of cone. However, this appears to be an adaptation to low light levels rather than representing true trichromatic vision. [74] Hearing The domestic cat's hearing is most acute in the range of 500 Hz to 32 kHz. [75] It can detect an extremely broad range of frequencies ranging from 55 Hz to 79, 000 Hz. It can hear a range of 10. 5  octaves, while humans and dogs can hear ranges of about 9 octaves. [76] [77] Its hearing sensitivity is enhanced by its large movable outer ears, the pinnae, which amplify sounds and help detect the location of a noise. It can detect ultrasound, which enables it to detect ultrasonic calls made by rodent prey. [78] [79] Smell Cats have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed olfactory bulb and a large surface of olfactory mucosa, about 5. 8 cm 2 (0. 90 in 2) in area, which is about twice that of humans. [80] Cats and many other animals have a Jacobson's organ in their mouths that is used in the behavioral process of flehmening. It allows them to sense certain aromas in a way that humans cannot. Cats are sensitive to pheromones such as 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol, [81] which they use to communicate through urine spraying and marking with scent glands. [82] Many cats also respond strongly to plants that contain nepetalactone, especially catnip, as they can detect that substance at less than one part per billion. [83] About 70–80% of cats are affected by nepetalactone. [84] This response is also produced by other plants, such as silver vine ( Actinidia polygama) and the herb valerian; it may be caused by the smell of these plants mimicking a pheromone and stimulating cats' social or sexual behaviors. [85] Taste Cats have relatively few taste buds compared to humans (470 or so versus more than 9, 000 on the human tongue). [86] Domestic and wild cats share a gene mutation that keeps their sweet taste buds from binding to sugary molecules, leaving them with no ability to taste sweetness. [87] Their taste buds instead respond to acids, amino acids like protein, and bitter tastes. [88] Cats also have a distinct temperature preference for their food, preferring food with a temperature around 38 °C (100 °F) which is similar to that of a fresh kill and routinely rejecting food presented cold or refrigerated (which would signal to the cat that the "prey" item is long dead and therefore possibly toxic or decomposing). [86] The whiskers of a cat are highly sensitive to touch. Whiskers To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable whiskers (vibrissae) over their body, especially their faces. These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective blink reflexes to protect the eyes from damage. [60]: 47 Balance Comparison of cat righting reflexes in gravity vis-à-vis zero gravity Most breeds of cat have a noted fondness for sitting in high places, or perching. A higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats strike prey by pouncing from a perch such as a tree branch. Another possible explanation is that height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing it to survey its territory. A cat falling from heights of up to 3 meters can right itself and land on its paws. [89] During a fall from a high place, a cat reflexively twists its body and rights itself to land on its feet using its acute sense of balance and flexibility. This reflex is known as the cat righting reflex. [90] An individual cat always rights itself in the same way during a fall, provided it has sufficient time to do so. The height required for this to occur is around 90 cm (3. 0 ft). [91] Cats without a tail also have this reflex. [92] Several explanations have been proposed for this phenomenon since the late 19th century: Cats rely on conservation of angular momentum. [93] The rotation angle of the front body is larger than that of the rear body. [94] The dynamics of the falling cat have been explained using the Udwadia–Kalaba equation. [95] Behavior Outdoor cats are active both day and night, although they tend to be slightly more active at night. [96] Domestic cats spend the majority of their time in the vicinity of their homes, but can range many hundreds of meters from this central point. They establish territories that vary considerably in size, in one study ranging from 7 to 28 hectares (17–69 acres). [97] The timing of cats' activity is quite flexible and varied, which means house cats may be more active in the morning and evening, as a response to greater human activity at these times. [98] Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older. The daily duration of sleep varies, usually between 12 and 16 hours, with 13 and 14 being the average. Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours. The term "cat nap" for a short rest refers to the cat's tendency to fall asleep (lightly) for a brief period. While asleep, cats experience short periods of rapid eye movement sleep often accompanied by muscle twitches, which suggests they are dreaming. [99] Sociability The social behavior of the domestic cat ranges from widely dispersed individuals to feral cat colonies that gather around a food source, based on groups of co-operating females. [100] [101] Within such groups, one cat is usually dominant over the others. [102] Each cat in a colony holds a distinct territory, with sexually active males having the largest territories, which are about 10 times larger than those of female cats and may overlap with several females' territories. These territories are marked by urine spraying, by rubbing objects at head height with secretions from facial glands, and by defecation. [82] Between these territories are neutral areas where cats watch and greet one another without territorial conflicts. Outside these neutral areas, territory holders usually chase away stranger cats, at first by staring, hissing, and growling and, if that does not work, by short but noisy and violent attacks. Despite some cats cohabiting in colonies, they do not have a social survival strategy, or a pack mentality and always hunt alone. [103] However, some pet cats are poorly socialized. In particular, older cats show aggressiveness towards newly arrived kittens, which include biting and scratching; this type of behavior is known as feline asocial aggression. [104] Life in proximity to humans and other domestic animals has led to a symbiotic social adaptation in cats, and cats may express great affection toward humans or other animals. Ethologically, the human keeper of a cat functions as a sort of surrogate for the cat's mother. [105] Adult cats live their lives in a kind of extended kittenhood, a form of behavioral neoteny. Their high-pitched sounds may mimic the cries of a hungry human infant, making them particularly difficult for humans to ignore. [106] Domestic cats' scent rubbing behavior towards humans or other cats is thought to be a feline means for social bonding. [107] Communication Domestic cats use many vocalizations for communication, including purring, trilling, hissing, growling/snarling, grunting, and several different forms of meowing. [7] Their body language, including position of ears and tail, relaxation of the whole body, and kneading of the paws, are all indicators of mood. The tail and ears are particularly important social signal mechanisms in cats. A raised tail indicates a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility. Tail-raising also indicates the cat's position in the group's social hierarchy, with dominant individuals raising their tails less often than subordinate ones. [108] Feral cats are generally silent. [109]: 208 Nose-to-nose touching is also a common greeting and may be followed by social grooming, which is solicited by one of the cats raising and tilting its head. [101] Purring may have developed as an evolutionary advantage as a signalling mechanism of reassurance between mother cats and nursing kittens. Post-nursing cats often purr as a sign of contentment: when being petted, becoming relaxed, [110] [111] or eating. The mechanism by which cats purr is elusive. The cat has no unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the sound. [112] Grooming The hooked papillae on a cat's tongue act like a hairbrush to help clean and detangle fur. A tabby housecat uses its brush-like tongue to groom itself, licking its fur to straighten it. Cats are known for spending considerable amounts of time licking their coats to keep them clean. [113] The cat's tongue has backwards-facing spines about 500  μm long, which are called papillae. These contain keratin which makes them rigid [114] so the papillae act like a hairbrush. Some cats, particularly longhaired cats, occasionally regurgitate hairballs of fur that have collected in their stomachs from grooming. These clumps of fur are usually sausage-shaped and about 2–3 cm (0. 8–1. 2 in) long. Hairballs can be prevented with remedies that ease elimination of the hair through the gut, as well as regular grooming of the coat with a comb or stiff brush. [113] Fighting A domestic cat's arched back, raised fur and an open-mouthed hiss are signs of aggression Among domestic cats, males are more likely to fight than females. [115] Among feral cats, the most common reason for cat fighting is competition between two males to mate with a female. In such cases, most fights are won by the heavier male. [116] Another common reason for fighting in domestic cats is the difficulty of establishing territories within a small home. [115] Female cats also fight over territory or to defend their kittens. Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to sex hormones. [117] When cats become aggressive, they try to make themselves appear larger and more threatening by raising their fur, arching their backs, turning sideways and hissing or spitting. [118] Often, the ears are pointed down and back to avoid damage to the inner ear and potentially listen for any changes behind them while focused forward. They may also vocalize loudly and bare their teeth in an effort to further intimidate their opponent. Fights usually consist of grappling and delivering powerful slaps to the face and body with the forepaws as well as bites. Cats also throw themselves to the ground in a defensive posture to rake their opponent's belly with their powerful hind legs. [119] Serious damage is rare, as the fights are usually short in duration, with the loser running away with little more than a few scratches to the face and ears. However, fights for mating rights are typically more severe and injuries may include deep puncture wounds and lacerations. Normally, serious injuries from fighting are limited to infections of scratches and bites, though these can occasionally kill cats if untreated. In addition, bites are probably the main route of transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus. [120] Sexually active males are usually involved in many fights during their lives, and often have decidedly battered faces with obvious scars and cuts to their ears and nose. [121] Hunting and feeding A domestic cat with its prey The shape and structure of cats' cheeks is insufficient to suck. They lap with the tongue to draw liquid upwards into their mouths. Lapping at a rate of four times a second, the cat touches the smooth tip of its tongue to the surface of the water, and quickly retracts it like a corkscrew, drawing water upwards. [122] [123] Free-fed feral cats and house cats consume several small meals in a day. The frequency and size of meals varies between individuals. They select food based on its temperature, smell and texture; they dislike chilled foods and respond most strongly to moist foods rich in amino acids, which are similar to meat. Cats reject novel flavors (a response termed neophobia) and learn quickly to avoid foods that have tasted unpleasant in the past. [103] [124] They also avoid sweet food and milk. Most adult cats are lactose intolerant; the sugar in milk is not easily digested and may cause soft stools or diarrhea. [125] Some also develop odd eating habits and like to eat or chew on things like wool, plastic, cables, paper, string, aluminum foil, or even coal. This condition, pica, can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten. [126] Cats hunt small prey, primarily birds and rodents. [127] and are often used as a form of pest control. [128] [129] Cats use two hunting strategies, either stalking prey actively, or waiting in ambush until an animal comes close enough to be captured. [130] The strategy used depends on the prey species in the area, with cats waiting in ambush outside burrows, but tending to actively stalk birds. [131]: 153 Domestic cats are a major predator of wildlife in the United States, killing an estimated 1. 4 to 3. 7 billion birds and 6. 9 to 20. 7 billion mammals annually. [132] Certain species appear more susceptible than others; for example, 30% of house sparrow mortality is linked to the domestic cat. [133] In the recovery of ringed robins ( Erithacus rubecula) and dunnocks ( Prunella modularis), 31% of deaths were a result of cat predation. [134] In parts of North America, the presence of larger carnivores such as coyotes which prey on cats and other small predators reduces the effect of predation by cats and other small predators such as opossums and raccoons on bird numbers and variety. [135] A cat playing with a mouse. Cats play with their prey to weaken or exhaust it before killing it. Perhaps the best known element of cats' hunting behavior, which is commonly misunderstood and often appals cat owners because it looks like torture, is that cats often appear to "play" with prey by releasing it after capture. This cat and mouse behavior is due to an instinctive imperative to ensure that the prey is weak enough to be killed without endangering the cat. [136] Another poorly understood element of cat hunting behavior is the presentation of prey to human guardians. One explanation is that cats adopt humans into their social group and share excess kill with others in the group according to the dominance hierarchy, in which humans are reacted to as if they are at, or near, the top. [137] Another explanation is that they attempt to teach their guardians to hunt or to help their human as if feeding "an elderly cat, or an inept kitten". [138] This hypothesis is inconsistent with the fact that male cats also bring home prey, despite males having negligible involvement in raising kittens. [131]: 153 Impact on birds On islands, birds can contribute as much as 60% of a cat's diet. [139] In nearly all cases, however, the cat cannot be identified as the sole cause for reducing the numbers of island birds, and in some instances, eradication of cats has caused a "mesopredator release" effect; [140] where the suppression of top carnivores creates an abundance of smaller predators that cause a severe decline in their shared prey. Domestic cats are, however, known to be a contributing factor to the decline of many species, a factor that has ultimately led, in some cases, to extinction. The South Island piopio, Chatham rail, [134] and the New Zealand merganser [141] are a few from a long list, with the most extreme case being the flightless Lyall's wren, which was driven to extinction only a few years after its discovery. [142] [143] Play Play fight between kittens, age 14 weeks Domestic cats, especially young kittens, are known for their love of play. This behavior mimics hunting and is important in helping kittens learn to stalk, capture, and kill prey. [144] Cats also engage in play fighting, with each other and with humans. This behavior may be a way for cats to practice the skills needed for real combat, and might also reduce any fear they associate with launching attacks on other animals. [145] Cats also tend to play with toys more when they are hungry. [146] Owing to the close similarity between play and hunting, cats prefer to play with objects that resemble prey, such as small furry toys that move rapidly, but rapidly lose interest. They become habituated to a toy they have played with before. [147] String is often used as a toy, but if it is eaten, it can become caught at the base of the cat's tongue and then move into the intestines, a medical emergency which can cause serious illness, even death. [148] Owing to the risks posed by cats eating string, it is sometimes replaced with a laser pointer 's dot, which cats may chase. [149] Reproduction When cats mate, the tomcat (male) bites the scruff of the female's neck as she assumes a position conducive to mating known as lordosis behavior. Radiography of a pregnant cat. The skeletons of two fetuses are visible on the left and right of the uterus. Female cats called queens are polyestrous with several estrus cycles during a year, lasting usually 21 days. They are usually ready to mate between early February and August. [150] Several males called tomcat are attracted to a female in heat. They fight over her, and the victor wins the right to mate. At first, the female rejects the male, but eventually the female allows the male to mate. The female utters a loud yowl as the male pulls out of her because a male cat's penis has a band of about 120–150 backwards-pointing penile spines, which are about 1 mm (0. 039 in) long; upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which acts to induce ovulation. This act also occurs to clear the vagina of other sperm in the context of a second (or more) mating, thus giving the later males a larger chance of conception. [151] After mating, the female cleans her vulva thoroughly. If a male attempts to mate with her at this point, the female attacks him. After about 20 to 30 minutes, once the female is finished grooming, the cycle will repeat. [152] Because ovulation is not always triggered by a single mating, females may not be impregnated by the first male with which they mate. [153] Furthermore, cats are superfecund; that is, a female may mate with more than one male when she is in heat, with the result that different kittens in a litter may have different fathers. [152] The morula forms 124 hours after conception. At 148 hours, early blastocysts form. At 10–12 days, implantation occurs. [154] The gestation of queens lasts between 64 and 67 days, with an average of 65 days. [150] [155] Data on reproductive capacity of more than 2, 300 free-ranging queens were collected during a study between May 1998 and October 2000. They had one to six kittens per litter, with an average of three kittens. They produced a mean of 1. 4 litters per year, but a maximum of three litters in a year. Of 169 kittens, 127 died before they were six months old due to a trauma caused in most cases by dog attacks and road accidents. [9] The first litter is usually smaller than subsequent litters. Kittens are weaned between six and seven weeks of age. Queens normally reach sexual maturity at 5–10 months, and males at 5–7 months. This varies depending on breed. [152] Kittens reach puberty at the age of 9–10 months. [150] Cats are ready to go to new homes at about 12 weeks of age, when they are ready to leave their mother. [156] They can be surgically sterilized (spayed or castrated) as early as seven weeks to limit unwanted reproduction. [157] This surgery also prevents undesirable sex-related behavior, such as aggression, territory marking (spraying urine) in males and yowling (calling) in females. Traditionally, this surgery was performed at around six to nine months of age, but it is increasingly being performed before puberty, at about three to six months. [158] In the United States, about 80% of household cats are neutered. [159] Lifespan and health The average lifespan of pet cats has risen in recent decades. In the early 1980s, it was about seven years, [160]: 33 [161] rising to 9. 4 years in 1995 [160]: 33 and 15. 1 years in 2018. [162] Some cats have been reported as surviving into their 30s, [163] with the oldest known cat, Creme Puff, dying at a verified age of 38. [164] Spaying or neutering increases life expectancy: one study found neutered male cats live twice as long as intact males, while spayed female cats live 62% longer than intact females. [160]: 35 Having a cat neutered confers health benefits, because castrated males cannot develop testicular cancer, spayed females cannot develop uterine or ovarian cancer, and both have a reduced risk of mammary cancer. [165] Despite widespread concern about the welfare of free-roaming cats, the lifespans of neutered feral cats in managed colonies compare favorably with those of pet cats. [166]: 45 [167]: 1358 [168] [169] [170] [171] Disease About two hundred fifty heritable genetic disorders have been identified in cats, many similar to human inborn errors of metabolism. [172] The high level of similarity among the metabolism of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using genetic tests that were originally developed for use in humans, as well as the use of cats as animal models in the study of the human diseases. [173] [174] Diseases affecting domestic cats include acute infections, parasitic infestations, injuries, and chronic diseases such as kidney disease, thyroid disease, and arthritis. Vaccinations are available for many infectious diseases, as are treatments to eliminate parasites such as worms and fleas. [175] Ecology Habitats The domestic cat is a cosmopolitan species and occurs across much of the world. [55] It is adaptable and now present on all continents except Antarctica, and on 118 of the 131 main groups of islands—even on isolated islands such as the Kerguelen Islands. [176] [177] Due to its ability to thrive in almost any terrestrial habitat, it is among the world's most invasive species. [178] As it is little altered from the wildcat, it can readily interbreed with the wildcat. This hybridization poses a danger to the genetic distinctiveness of some wildcat populations, particularly in Scotland and Hungary and possibly also the Iberian Peninsula. [52] It lives on small islands with no human inhabitants. [179] Feral cats can live in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands. [180] Feral cats Feral cats are domestic cats that were born in or have reverted to a wild state. They are unfamiliar with and wary of humans and roam freely in urban and rural areas. [10] The numbers of feral cats is not known, but estimates of the United States feral population range from twenty-five to sixty million. [10] Feral cats may live alone, but most are found in large colonies, which occupy a specific territory and are usually associated with a source of food. [181] Famous feral cat colonies are found in Rome around the Colosseum and Forum Romanum, with cats at some of these sites being fed and given medical attention by volunteers. [182] Public attitudes towards feral cats vary widely, ranging from seeing them as free-ranging pets, to regarding them as vermin. [183] One common approach to reducing the feral cat population is termed "trap-neuter-return", where the cats are trapped, neutered, immunized against diseases such as rabies and the feline panleukopenia and leukemia viruses, and then released. [184] Before releasing them back into their feral colonies, the attending veterinarian often nips the tip off one ear to mark it as neutered and inoculated, since these cats may be trapped again. Volunteers continue to feed and give care to these cats throughout their lives. Given this support, their lifespans are increased, and behavior and nuisance problems caused by competition for food are reduced. [181] Interaction with humans Cats are common pets throughout the world, and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million as of 2007. [185] Although cat guardianship has commonly been associated with women, a 2007 Gallup poll reported that men and women in the United States were equally likely to own a cat. [186] As well as being kept as pets, cats are also used in the international fur [187] and leather industries for making coats, hats, blankets, and stuffed toys; [188] and shoes, gloves, and musical instruments respectively [189] (about 24 cats are needed to make a cat-fur coat). [190] This use has been outlawed in the United States, Australia, and the European Union in 2007. [191] Cat pelts have been used for superstitious purposes as part of the practise of witchcraft, [192] and are still made into blankets in Switzerland as folk remedies believed to help rheumatism. [193] In the Western intellectual tradition, the idea of cats as everyday objects have served to illustrate problems of quantum mechanics in the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment. A few attempts to build a cat census have been made over the years, both through associations or national and international organizations (such as the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies 's one [194]) and over the Internet, [195] [196] but such a task does not seem simple to achieve. General estimates for the global population of domestic cats range widely from anywhere between 200 million to 600 million. [197] [198] [199] [200] [201] Walter Chandoha made his career photographing cats after his 1949 images of Loco, an especially charming stray taken in, were published around the world. He is reported to have photographed 90, 000 cats during his career and maintained an archive of 225, 000 images that he drew from for publications during his lifetime. [202] Cat show A cat show is a judged event in which the owners of cats compete to win titles in various cat-registering organizations by entering their cats to be judged after a breed standard. [203] [204] Both pedigreed and non- purebred companion ("moggy"") cats are admissible, although the rules differ from organization to organization. Competing cats are compared to the applicable breed standard, [205] and assessed for temperament and apparent health; the owners of those judged to be most ideal awarded a prize. Moggies are judged based on their temperament and healthy appearance. Some events also include activity judging, such as trained navigation of obstacle course. Often, at the end of the year, all of the points accrued at various shows are added up and more national and regional titles are awarded to champion cats. Infections transmitted from cats to humans Cats can be infected or infested with viruses, bacteria, fungus, protozoans, arthropods or worms that can transmit diseases to humans. [206] In some cases, the cat exhibits no symptoms of the disease, [207] However, the same disease can then become evident in a human. The likelihood that a person will become diseased depends on the age and immune status of the person. Humans who have cats living in their home or in close association are more likely to become infected, however, those who do not keep cats as pets might also acquire infections from cat feces and parasites exiting the cat's body. [206] [208] Some of the infections of most concern include salmonella, cat-scratch disease and toxoplasmosis. [207] History and mythology The ancient Egyptians mummified dead cats out of respect in the same way that they mummified people. [4] A 19th-century drawing of a tabby cat In ancient Egypt, cats were worshipped, and the goddess Bastet often depicted in cat form, sometimes taking on the war-like aspect of a lioness. The Greek historian Herodotus reported that killing a cat was forbidden, and when a household cat died, the entire family mourned and shaved their eyebrows. Families took their dead cats to the sacred city of Bubastis, where they were embalmed and buried in sacred repositories. Herodotus expressed astonishment at the domestic cats in Egypt, because he had only ever seen wildcats. [209] Ancient Greeks and Romans kept weasels as pets, which were seen as the ideal rodent-killers. The earliest unmistakable evidence of the Greeks having domestic cats comes from two coins from Magna Graecia dating to the mid-fifth century BC showing Iokastos and Phalanthos, the legendary founders of Rhegion and Taras respectively, playing with their pet cats. The usual ancient Greek word for 'cat' was ailouros, meaning 'thing with the waving tail'. Cats are rarely mentioned in ancient Greek literature. Aristotle remarked in his History of Animals that "female cats are naturally lecherous. " The Greeks later syncretized their own goddess Artemis with the Egyptian goddess Bastet, adopting Bastet's associations with cats and ascribing them to Artemis. In Ovid 's Metamorphoses, when the deities flee to Egypt and take animal forms, the goddess Diana turns into a cat. [210] [211] Cats eventually displaced ferrets as the pest control of choice because they were more pleasant to have around the house and were more enthusiastic hunters of mice. During the Middle Ages, many of Artemis's associations with cats were grafted onto the Virgin Mary. Cats are often shown in icons of Annunciation and of the Holy Family and, according to Italian folklore, on the same night that Mary gave birth to Jesus, a cat in Bethlehem gave birth to a kitten. [212] Domestic cats were spread throughout much of the rest of the world during the Age of Discovery, as ships' cats were carried on sailing ships to control shipboard rodents and as good-luck charms. [46] Several ancient religions believed cats are exalted souls, companions or guides for humans, that are all-knowing but mute so they cannot influence decisions made by humans. In Japan, the maneki neko cat is a symbol of good fortune. [213] In Norse mythology, Freyja, the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, is depicted as riding a chariot drawn by cats. [214] In Jewish legend, the first cat was living in the house of the first man Adam as a pet that got rid of mice. The cat was once partnering with the first dog before the latter broke an oath they had made which resulted in enmity between the descendants of these two animals. It is also written that neither cats nor foxes are represented in the water, while every other animal has an incarnation species in the water. [215] Although no species are sacred in Islam, cats are revered by Muslims. Some Western writers have stated Muhammad had a favorite cat, Muezza. [216] He is reported to have loved cats so much, "he would do without his cloak rather than disturb one that was sleeping on it". [217] The story has no origin in early Muslim writers, and seems to confuse a story of a later Sufi saint, Ahmed ar-Rifa'i, centuries after Muhammad. [218] One of the companions of Muhammad was known as Abu Hurayrah ("father of the kitten"), in reference to his documented affection to cats. [219] Superstitions and rituals Some cultures are superstitious about black cats, ascribing either good or bad luck to them. Many cultures have negative superstitions about cats. An example would be the belief that a black cat "crossing one's path" leads to bad luck, or that cats are witches' familiars used to augment a witch's powers and skills. The killing of cats in Medieval Ypres, Belgium, is commemorated in the innocuous present-day Kattenstoet (cat parade). [220] In medieval France, cats would be burnt alive as a form of entertainment. According to Norman Davies, the assembled people "shrieked with laughter as the animals, howling with pain, were singed, roasted, and finally carbonized ". [221] "It was the custom to burn a basket, barrel, or sack full of live cats, which was hung from a tall mast in the midst of the bonfire; sometimes a fox was burned. The people collected the embers and ashes of the fire and took them home, believing that they brought good luck. The French kings often witnessed these spectacles and even lit the bonfire with their own hands. In 1648 Louis XIV, crowned with a wreath of roses and carrying a bunch of roses in his hand, kindled the fire, danced at it and partook of the banquet afterwards in the town hall. But this was the last occasion when a monarch presided at the midsummer bonfire in Paris. At Metz midsummer fires were lighted with great pomp on the esplanade, and a dozen cats, enclosed in wicker cages, were burned alive in them, to the amusement of the people. Similarly at Gap, in the department of the Hautes-Alpes, cats used to be roasted over the midsummer bonfire. " [222] According to a myth in many cultures, cats have multiple lives. In many countries, they are believed to have nine lives, but in Italy, Germany, Greece, Brazil and some Spanish-speaking regions, they are said to have seven lives, [223] [224] while in Turkish and Arabic traditions, the number of lives is six. [225] The myth is attributed to the natural suppleness and swiftness cats exhibit to escape life-threatening situations. 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Cats for adoption near me. Cats love. Cats song. Cats csfd. Cats Theatrical release poster Directed by Tom Hooper Produced by Debra Hayward Tim Bevan Eric Fellner Tom Hooper Screenplay by Lee Hall Based on Cats by Andrew Lloyd Webber Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats by T. S. Eliot Starring James Corden Judi Dench Jason Derulo Idris Elba Jennifer Hudson Ian McKellen Taylor Swift Rebel Wilson Francesca Hayward Music by Andrew Lloyd Webber Cinematography Christopher Ross Edited by Melanie Oliver Production company Working Title Films Amblin Entertainment Monumental Pictures The Really Useful Group Perfect World Pictures Distributed by Universal Pictures Release date 16 December 2019 ( Alice Tully Hall) 20 December 2019 (United Kingdom & United States) Running time 110 minutes [1] Country United Kingdom United States Language English Budget $80–100 million [2] [3] Box office $67. 4 million [4] [5] Cats is a 2019 musical fantasy film based on the stage musical of the same name by Andrew Lloyd Webber, which in turn was based on the poetry collection Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats (1939) by T. Eliot. The film is directed by Tom Hooper —in his second feature musical following Les Misérables (2012)—from a screenplay by Lee Hall and Hooper and features an ensemble cast, including James Corden, Judi Dench, Jason Derulo, Idris Elba, Jennifer Hudson, Ian McKellen, Taylor Swift, Rebel Wilson, and Francesca Hayward. Cats was theatrically released in the United Kingdom and the United States on 20 December 2019, by Universal Pictures. The film received overwhelmingly negative reviews from critics, who criticized the CGI effects, plot, and tone, with many calling it one of the worst films of 2019. The film became a box-office bomb, having so far grossed $67 million on a budget as high as $100 million. Plot Victoria, a young white cat, is dropped in the streets of London by her owner in the middle of the night. The alley cats witnessing this introduce themselves to her as the " Jellicles ". Two toms, meek magician Mr. Mistoffelees who develops a crush on Victoria and the loyal Munkustrap, and two queens, the snooty Cassandra and Demeter, take Victoria under their wing and show her the world of the Jellicles as they hype up the Jellicle Ball, an annual ceremony where cats compete for the chance to go to the Heaviside Layer and be granted a new life. Throughout the film, the competitors are introduced and express their contributions to the community: Jennyanydots, a domestic tabby, boosts the productivity of mice and roaches; the Rum Tum Tugger, a flirtatious tom who riles up the others; Bustopher Jones, a bourgeois cat who boasts about his weight and shares food scraps from the garbage; Skimbleshanks, a tidy ginger cat who taps along the railway; Gus, an aged theatre cat who has played some of the biggest roles in history; and Macavity, a villainous stray with the power to apparate and who kidnaps the other contestants (save for Tugger) in order to be made the Jellicle Choice by default. Victoria also happens to meet the mischievous twins Mungojerrie and Rumpleteazer who enjoy causing trouble and messing with things in the house of their human family. They convince Victoria to join in the fun, but leave her tangled up in some necklaces when the family dog is alerted to their presence. Luckily, Mr. Mistoffelees comes to rescue Victoria, distracting the dog and escaping with her. They return to the group, just in time to see the arrival of the tribe's wise and beloved matriarch Old Deuteronomy. The Jellicle Ball commences inside the abandoned Egyptian Theatre. Victoria dances a ballet solo in the moonlight but is distracted by Cassandra harassing Grizabella, a former member of the tribe who was banished for, among other things, her past allegiance with Macavity. Victoria relates to Grizabella's feelings of abandonment. As Grizabella slinks away into the streets, Old Deuteronomy witnesses their quiet camaraderie and assures Victoria that she can become a Jellicle herself in time. The Ball is interrupted by femme fatale Bombalurina, who performs a song and dance number dedicated to Macavity: a distraction to incapacitate the party with catnip. Macavity arrives, demanding to be made the Jellicle Choice. Old Deuteronomy deems him unworthy and is subsequently kidnapped and placed with Macavity's other victims. As the Jellicles recuperate, distraught over their leader's disappearance, Victoria suggests that Mr. Mistoffelees use his powers to conjure Old Deuteronomy back. He tries a few times, eventually making Old Deuteronomy reappear. The cats rejoice and praise Mr. Mistoffeles; he and Victoria dance together. Meanwhile, Jennyanydots, via a costume change, frees herself and the other cats kidnapped by Macavity. Macavity apparates away, leaving his lackey to walk the plank at the mercy of the emancipated cats. Grizabella returns to the Egyptian. Victoria vouches for her and urges her to sing her true feelings. Grizabella proceeds to sing a passionate ballad about her mistakes, her former glory, and her beauty, sentiments that touch the hearts of the Jellicles. Old Deuteronomy names Grizabella the Jellicle Choice and sends her off to the Heaviside Layer in a chandelier (repaired by Mr. Mistoffelees' magic to float like a hot air balloon). Macavity, in one last attempt to reach the Heaviside Layer, leaps onto a rope from the chandelier but falls onto Nelson's Column. The Jellicles, reunited with their kidnapped brethren, and perched on a lion statue, watch Grizabella ascend as the morning sun appears above the horizon. After the congregation disperses, Old Deuteronomy welcomes Victoria to the tribe. Cast Production Development An animated film adaptation based on the musical was initially planned by Amblimation in the 1990s, but was abandoned with the studio's closure. [27] In December 2013, Andrew Lloyd Webber, creator and composer of the musical stage production Cats, teased that Universal Pictures, which had purchased the film rights to Cats many years earlier, was putting the project into active development. [28] In February 2016, it was reported that Tom Hooper was in negotiations to direct the film, and was considering actresses, including Suki Waterhouse, to star. [29] In May 2016, Hooper was confirmed as director. [30] In January 2018, Hooper and Working Title began officially casting for the film, while looking into the technical aspect of whether the film would be entirely live-action or computer generated or a mix of both, [ citation needed] with Lloyd Webber announcing he would be writing a new song for the film adaptation. [31] On 24 October 2019, it was announced that the new song is titled " Beautiful Ghosts ", written by Taylor Swift and Lloyd Webber. [32] The song will be sung by Francesca Hayward, followed later in a reprise by Judi Dench, with a credits version sung by Swift. [33] The version sung by Swift was released on 15 November 2019. [34] Casting In June 2018, there were reports Anne Hathaway was considered for a role in the film, but she passed due to scheduling conflict. [35] In July 2018, Jennifer Hudson, Taylor Swift, James Corden, and Ian McKellen joined the cast. [36] Swift had previously tested for the role of Éponine in Tom Hooper's Les Misérables but was given the part of Bombalurina without an audition. [37] In September 2018, Laurie Davidson and Mette Towley were cast, with Steven Spielberg announced to be executive producing. [38] [39] In October 2018, Idris Elba and Judi Dench joined the cast of the film. [40] [41] Dench was cast in the original stage musical, but was forced to pull out due to a torn Achilles tendon; Lloyd Webber and Hooper decided to make Old Deuteronomy a woman and offered her the role. [42] In November 2018, ballet dancers Francesca Hayward and Steven McRae as well as Rebel Wilson, Jason Derulo, and Robert Fairchild joined the cast of the film with rehearsals commencing at Leavesden Studios in Hertfordshire, England. [43] [44] [45] [46] Andy Blankenbuehler choreographed the film, after Wayne McGregor was forced to back out due to scheduling conflicts. [47] Blankenbuehler also choreographed the stage musical's 2016 Broadway revival. In December 2018, Les Twins and Eric Underwood joined the cast. [48] Filming Principal photography began on 12 December 2018, [48] and wrapped on 2 April 2019. [49] Swift said that the cast attended "cat school", in which "We would literally do hours on end of barefoot crawling on the floor, hissing at each other". [50] Hooper said at the 16 December world premiere that he had finished the film "at 8am the previous day after 36 hours in a row". [51] [52] Music Music for the film was composed by Andrew Lloyd Webber. A "highlights" edition of the soundtrack with a running time of 59 minutes was released on 20 December 2019, by Polydor Records and in the US by Republic Records. [53] The song " Beautiful Ghosts " by Taylor Swift, a single from the soundtrack album, was released on 15 November 2019. [54] Musical numbers "Overture"/"Prologue: Jellicle Songs for Jellicle Cats" – Orchestra/Company " The Naming of Cats "/"The Invitation to the Jellicle Ball" – Munkunstrap, Mr. Mistoffelees & Company "Jennyanydots: The Old Gumbie Cat" – Jennyanydots, Munkustrap & Company "The Rum Tum Tugger" – Rum Tum Tugger, Jennyanydots & Company "Grizabella: The Glamour Cat" – Grizabella, Cassandra, Demeter & Company "Bustopher Jones: The Cat About Town" – Bustopher, Rum Tum Tugger, Maitre D' & Company "Mungojerrie and Rumpleteazer" – Mungojerrie, Rumpleteazer & Victoria "Old Deuteronomy" – Munkustrap, Old Deuteronomy & Company "Growltiger's Last Stand" – Growltiger "The Jellicle Ball" – Company "Memory (Prelude)"/" Beautiful Ghosts " " – Grizabella & Victoria "The Moments of Happiness" – Old Deuteronomy " Gus: The Theatre Cat " – Gus "Skimbleshanks: The Railway Cat" – Skimbleshanks, Munkustrap & Company "Macavity: The Mystery Cat" – Bombalurina, Macavity, Mungojerrie, Rumpleteazer, Griddlebone & Company "Mr. Mistoffelees" – Mistoffelees, Munkustrap & Company " Memory " – Grizabella & Victoria " Beautiful Ghosts (Reprise)" - Victoria, Old Deuteronomy & Grizabella "The Journey to the Heaviside Layer" – Company "Finale: The Ad-Dressing of Cats" – Old Deuteronomy & Company Visual effects Cats uses extensive visual effects throughout to convert the live-action actors to computer-animated cats. Companies that worked on the film include Industrial Light & Magic and Technicolor SA subsidiaries Mill Film and MPC. [55] To aid this, the actors performed in motion capture suits with tracking dots on their costumes and faces. [56] The bodies of the cat characters were rendered with digital fur which was blended with the actors' actual faces. Substantial work on the VFX for Cats was performed at MPC Vancouver, which had previously worked on re-doing the visual effects for Sonic the Hedgehog. [57] Marketing On 6 April 2019, Jennifer Hudson performed " Memory " at the Las Vegas CinemaCon, along with a behind-the-scenes look with the film's cast and crew. [58] On 17 July 2019, Universal released a behind-the-scenes featurette detailing the various aspects of the film's production and featuring interviews with the cast and crew. [59] The first trailer for the film was released on 18 July 2019, [60] and received overwhelmingly negative reactions from viewers. [61] Many viewers were unsettled by the mix of CGI and live-action used to portray the cats, and cited the effects as an example of the uncanny valley, with some comparing it unfavourably to the design of Sonic in the first trailer of the upcoming film Sonic the Hedgehog, which also sparked similar criticism that ultimately resulted in the character being redesigned and the film being delayed. [62] [63] The studio spent about $115 million on global promotions and advertisements for the film. [64] Release The film premiered at Alice Tully Hall at the Lincoln Center in New York City on 16 December 2019 [65] [66] and was theatrically released in the United States and United Kingdom on 20 December 2019. [67] CGI glitches and modified release The film's original release contained numerous CGI errors and glitches, such as one scene in which Judi Dench's human hand, complete with her wedding ring, appears instead of her character's cat paw. [68] After poor reviews, Universal notified cinemas on opening day that an updated Digital Cinema Package with "some improved visual effects" would be available for download on 22 December, urging them to replace the current print as soon as possible. Studio executives and cinema owners said that the decision to release a modified version of a film already in wide release was "unheard of". [69] Reception Box office As of 30 January 2020, Cats has grossed $27 million in the United States and Canada, and $40. 4 million in other territories, for a worldwide total of $67. 4 million, against a production budget of about $95 million. [5] [4] Estimates for how much the film would lose the studio range from $71–100 million. [64] [70] In the United States and Canada, Cats was initially projected to gross $15–20 million in its opening weekend. [71] Universal hoped that the film would appeal to young women as counterprogramming against Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker, and emphasised Swift in marketing; the singer, who only appeared for one song, did not heavily promote the film to her fans. [51] After making $2. 6 million on its opening day (including $550, 000 from Thursday night previews), estimates for Cats were lowered to $7 million. [3] It went on to debut to $6. 5 million, finishing fourth at the box office. The underperformance was attributed to dislike of the trailers, poor reviews of the film itself, and competition from Skywalker. [2] The film's audience was older than expected at 55% between 18 and 44; Frozen 2, also marketed to young women, made more money from US cinemas ($12. 4 million) in its fifth weekend than Cats ' s $10. 9 million global gross. In its second weekend, Cats made $4. 8 million (a total of $8. 7 million over the five-day Christmas frame), falling to eighth. [72] It then made $2. 6 million in its third weekend, finishing tenth. [73] Critical response The review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reported that 20% of critics have given the film a positive review based on 272 reviews, with an average rating of 3. 77/10. The site's critics consensus reads: "Despite its fur-midable cast, this Cats adaptation is a clawful mistake that will leave most viewers begging to be put out of their mew-sery. " [74] On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 32 out of 100 based on 50 critics, indicating "generally unfavorable reviews". [75] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "C+" on an A+ to F scale, while those at PostTrak gave it an average 0. 5 out of 5 stars, with 30% saying they would definitely recommend it. [64] Peter Debruge of Variety called the film "one of those once-in-a-blue-moon embarrassments that mars the résumés of great actors (poor Idris Elba, already scarred enough as the villainous Macavity) and trips up the careers of promising newcomers (like ballerina Francesca Hayward, whose wide-eyed, mouth-agape Victoria displays one expression for the entire movie)". He criticised the direction and effects, and warned that the film would appeal to furries. [76] David Rooney of The Hollywood Reporter felt that the film was "hobbled by a major misjudgment in its central visual concept" lamenting its execution (such as the poor proportions of the "cats" to their environments) and deeming the film "exhausting". [77] Peter Travers of Rolling Stone rated the film 0 out of 5 stars, stating it was "bizarre", had terrible special effects and made the audience "want to cry for mercy", while Hooper "traps the actors in an airless, lifeless bubble of a film that scarcely gives them room to breathe, much less develop a character". [78] In the Los Angeles Times, Justin Chang wrote that "With its grotesque design choices and busy, metronomic editing, Cats is as uneasy on the eyes as a Hollywood spectacle can be, tumbling into an uncanny valley between mangy realism and dystopian artifice". [79] Debruge said that the film should have used "face paint and Lycra" like the musical. [76] Simran Hans of The Observer agreed that "many of its uncanny images are sure to haunt viewers for generations". Her one-star review described the film as "a clear career low" for most of the actors, wondering whether they "are aware of what they've gotten themselves into". [52] Peter Bradshaw for The Guardian agreed with the one-star rating. In a review parodying " The Naming of Cats ", he criticized the visual style and particularly the character design, while lambasting the film as a "dreadful hairball of woe". [80] Manohla Dargis of The New York Times felt that Hooper had made "a robust effort" to adapt the stage musical—which "was always going to be difficult, particularly once the decision was made to create a live-action version rather than an animated one"—and "enlisted some talented performers", but that the film version suffered from a lack of the human connection that theatre involves, where performers and audience share a space, without which "all that's left are canned images of fit-looking people meowing and raising their rumps high in the air". [81] The Hollywood Reporter named Cats one of the ten worst films of 2019, [82] Travers said it "easily scores as the bottom of the 2019 barrel—and arguably of the decade", [78] and Adam Graham of The Detroit News said " Cats is the biggest disaster of the decade, and possibly thus far in the millennium. It's Battlefield Earth with whiskers". [83] Alex Cranz of io9 warned "I have seen sights no human should see" but said others "must witness" Hooper's, the actors', and Hollywood's hubris, citing a human being appearing in a group of cats, a cat-coloured woman without fur, and other examples of how "the shit's just not finished ". [84] Ty Burr of The Boston Globe ' s one half-star review said "there are moments in 'Cats' I would gladly pay to unsee" and warned small children to not watch the film. He reported that the preview audience laughed like the reaction to Springtime for Hitler during Dench's "The Ad-dressing of Cats", because each pause in her lyrics seemed to be the end of the film ("at long last") before continuing. [85] Despite the negative critical reception, the performances of the cast received praise. Pete Hammond of Deadline complimented Taylor Swift, writing that she "acquits herself nicely as Bombalurina and her signature 'Macavity' number, as well as 'Beautiful Ghosts', written for the end credits by Swift and Lloyd Webber. " [86] Critic Guy Lodge called Swift "the best thing in the film" and "the one performer who completely hits their marks and pulls off the lone successful number", [87] while critic Rebecca Lewis described Swift's performance as "one of the few genuinely good parts of the film". [88] Patrick Ryan of USA Today stated that Swift "makes the most of her brief screen time, bringing her unabating charisma to the flirtatious feline... if there's one thing that's disappointing about Swift's performance, it's that there isn't more of it". [89] Hans said that she was the only actor "who seems to be having fun, perhaps because she only appears in the film for approximately 10 minutes". [52] Jennifer Hudson similarly received praise for her rendition of 'Memory, ' with some critics describing it as "the best part" of the film [90] and "the sole musical number in the new movie that summons real feeling". [91] Rich Juzwiak of Jezebel predicted that Cats might become a cult classic like Rocky Horror Picture Show, noting that sing-along screenings of the film were already taking place in Toronto and Los Angeles and were selling out. [92] [93] Accolades Variety reported on 26 December 2019 that Universal had removed Cats from its For Your Consideration Web page. The film is not available on the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences 's private streaming media platform for award contenders. [50] [94] Awards and nominations for Cats List of awards and nominations Award Date of ceremony Category Recipient(s) and nominee(s) Result Golden Globe Awards 5 January 2020 [95] Best Original Song " Beautiful Ghosts " by Taylor Swift and Andrew Lloyd Webber Nominated References ^ "Cats (U)". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on 16 December 2019. Retrieved 16 December 2019. ^ a b D'Alessandro, Anthony (22 December 2019). " ' Star Wars: Rise Of Skywalker' Lowers Lightsaber To $179M+, But Still 3rd Best December Opening; 'Cats' Oh Drat $6. 5M, 'Bombshell' $5. 1M – Sunday AM Early Update". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on 21 December 2019. Retrieved 22 December 2019. ^ a b McClintock, Pamela (21 December 2019). "Box Office: 'Star Wars' Soars to $90M Friday, 'Cats' Declawed". The Hollywood Reporter. 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"So excited to finally share with you all what I've been working on these past 7 months... being all catty as Demeter in Universal Pictures and Working Title's feature film CATS directed by Tom Hooper crazy cat lady is so excited for you to see it at Christmas this ". @dannieyasmin. Retrieved 25 March 2019. ^ "Bluey Robinson on Instagram: "Hello internet. So here goes.. Proud to finally announce that for the last 6 months your boy has been lost in a feline circus shooting… " ". Archived from the original on 5 April 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019. ^ Strallen, Zizi (23 March 2019). "So I'm allowed to officially tell people now that I've been filming the @catsmovie for the last 5 months. Playing Tantomile. She's quite different from the show, not a twin but a little cheeky, flirty kitten. Can't wait for everyone to see it this christmas. #catsmovie". @ZiziStrallen. Archived from the original on 12 April 2019. 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Retrieved 21 February 2019. ^ Vlessing, Etan (24 October 2019). "Andrew Lloyd Webber Talks Working with Taylor Swift on New 'Cats' Song". Archived from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 25 October 2019. ^ Burlingame, Jon (24 October 2019). "Taylor Swift and Andrew Lloyd Webber Have Co-Written a New Song for 'Cats ' ". Retrieved 25 October 2019. ^ Aniftos, Rania (15 November 2019). "Taylor Swift Releases 'Beautiful Ghosts, ' Co-Written With Andrew Lloyd Webber for 'Cats' Film". Billboard. Archived from the original on 19 November 2019. Retrieved 20 November 2019. ^ ThatHashTagShow (13 June 2018). "EXCLUSIVE: Anne Hathaway In Talks To Star In Universal's CATS". That Hashtag Show. Archived from the original on 17 November 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2019. ^ Wiseman, Andreas (20 July 2018). "Jennifer Hudson, Taylor Swift, James Corden & Ian McKellen Line Up For 'Cats' Movie — Miaow". Deadline. Retrieved 21 February 2019. ^ "Taylor Swift Talks Co-Writing New 'Cats' Song, Recalls 'Les Mis' Audition". 25 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019. I had actually done screen tests for 'Les Mis' and had met (Hooper) through that process, like 2012, " Swift revealed. "I didn't get it, but it was such an amazing experience just doing the screen test. And I was obviously like, 'I'm not going to get this, ' because the other girl was amazing and was on the West End — Samantha Barks; she's incredible and she fully killed the role and was amazing.... I just had a good time doing the screen tests" But there were no tryouts involved by the time everyone got to 2018: "When I was approached this time, it was a straight-up offer. " ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (25 September 2018). Retrieved 21 February 2019. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (26 September 2018). " ' Cats': Dancer Mette Towley Joins Cast Of Universal-Working Title Film". Retrieved 21 February 2019. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (16 October 2018). " ' Cats': Idris Elba Boarding Universal-Working Title Movie As Macavity". Archived from the original on 17 October 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2019. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (18 October 2018). "Judi Dench Set To Pounce On 'Cats ' ". Archived from the original on 19 October 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2018. ^ "Taylor Swift On Side-Stepping Into Acting, Owning What You Make & Loving The "Weirdness" Of Cats". British Vogue. 2 December 2019. Archived from the original on 2 December 2019. Retrieved 2 December 2019. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (2 November 2018). "Royal Ballet Principal Dancer Francesca Hayward Joins Universal-Working Title's 'Cats ' ". Archived from the original on 3 November 2018. Retrieved 2 November 2018. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (8 November 2018). Retrieved 21 February 2019. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (19 November 2018). Retrieved 19 November 2018. ^ Kit, Borys (20 November 2018). "Jason Derulo Joins Jennifer Hudson, James Corden in All-Star 'Cats' Movie (Exclusive)". 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Unsure why they cut Bombularina from early parts of the film unless they wanted (needed? ) that anticipation. #CatsMoviepic". @bexlewis361. Retrieved 19 December 2019. ^ Ryan, Patrick (18 December 2019). " ' Cats': Everything Taylor Swift says, does and sings in her unhinged new movie musical". Retrieved 20 December 2019. ^ "5 reasons why Jennifer Hudson's version of 'Memory' is the best thing about the new Cats movie". Classic FM. Retrieved 2 January 2020. ^ "In 'Cats, ' 'Memory' is a 'popera' furball, but don't blame Jennifer Hudson". Los Angeles Times. 21 December 2019. Archived from the original on 1 January 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2020. ^ Juzwiak, Rich (9 January 2020). "Cats May Have a 10th Life as a Cult Classic". Archived from the original on 15 January 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2020. ^ Wilner, Norman (11 January 2020). "Cats is already getting the cult classic treatment in Toronto". Toronto Now. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. 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Cats meowing. Cats 2019 cast.


Correspondent Baek Hugo
Biography: I have a son named Huru 🐱 // (Just an RP acct.)




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